1. Election promises
Because an election is a popularity contest, getting elected means making promises, most of which are discarded after the candidate and their party is elected. This is hugely frustrating for voters, and undermines the credibility of the political system.
In Sortition, no promises are required, as every candidate has the same chance of being elected as every other candidate.
2. Political parties
Political parties are an essential feature of any system based on elections. To provide the electorate with relevant choices, politicians need to be organised in groups that can campaign during elections. This organisation is also required in the parliament, when one group of politicians governs and another provides opposition to whatever the group of governing politicians does and says. Parliamentary organisation is also needed to ensure that individual parliamentarians act in line with party policy, rather than according to their own views or beliefs, to underpin the stability of the sitting government.
There are certain advantages to this, but political parties are also breeding grounds for corruption. Membership of a party provides a conduit to those other members who govern, and decisions taken in this regard are invisible to the general public.
In Sortition, political parties can exist, but there is no need for them, and their power is limited to a far greater degree than under our current system. There are no elections, so no organisation around that activity is required. In parliament, members are free to vote how they choose, as the consequences of a vote being defeated does not undermine the Government, as the Government is chosen from all members of the parliament, rather than the political party with the most seats.
No political system can guarantee against corruption. If an individual is given power, there will always be another individual willing to pay them to use that power by proxy.
Our current system of government, representative government, is particularly prone to corruption, because money is almost essential to political success. Representative government also encourages corrupt people to seek election, because success can be achieved with money. Elections allow people who want power most to obtain power, when in fact those are the people who should never be in power.
A public representative who obtains power via a lottery system would still be exposed to corrupt influence, but the incentive to be corrupt is greatly reduced. Money confers no advantage on public representatives appointed via Sortition, so there is nothing to be gained politically from taking money to act in a particular way.
4. Fairer and more diverse representation
Because of the nature of electoral politics, the people who are elected tend to come from a restricted subset of demographics, income brackets and professions.
Wealthier people tend to fair better. People who have been involved in trade unions tend to fair better. People in professional occupations (solicitors, doctors, accountants) tend to fair better. Teachers (who have time off during election campaigns) tend to fair better.
Conversely, mothers tend not to participate. People from low-income backgrounds tend not to participate. People in 9-to-5 jobs tend not to participate. Farmers tend not to participate. In fact, a huge portion of the average population is generally excluded from representation.
In Sortition, none of this is true. Anyone who wants to can add their name to the list of eligible candidates. No campaigning or money is required, and mothers, people on low incomes, 9-to-5ers and farmers are just as likely to be made members of parliament as anybody else.
Clientelism describes the phenomenon where elected public representatives act as advocates for their constituents who are faced with local issues. This is a particular problem in multi-seat constituencies, where each politician competes with every other politician to see who can provide the best “service”.
This is not why we elect public representatives. We elect public representatives to consider evidence pertaining to national issues and make decisions based on that evidence. The ability of a public representative to do this effectively is greatly curtailed if they have to spend half their time in their local area dealing with issues that should be dealt with by local agencies.
In Sortition, this problem doesn’t exist. There is no competition, so public representatives can focus entirely on national issues.
6. Electoral fraud / manipulation
In a system based on elections, significant resources have to be deployed to protect against fraud. Agencies have to be established to monitor spending, to ensure balance in the media, to ensure that polling stations are secure, to ensure that votes are counted correctly, to ensure that the electoral register is valid and accurate, to ensure that only people who are entitled to vote can vote. This costs a lot of money, and fraud and manipulation still occur.
In Sortition, the system is simple. People who want to be considered put their name on a list. All the names go into a hat, and a fixed number are drawn. The process takes no more than an hour, and once it is done in public, is virtually incorruptible.
7. Universal participation in the legislative process
In typical electoral systems, legislation is drafted by the government and passed by a majority of the government representatives in the parliament. Members of the parliament who are not members of the governing party suggest changes to the legislation, some sensible, some just to get their name in the papers, but these changes are almost universally ignored, as conceding to such changes is seen as an admission by the government party that the other parties have sensible things to say, which is then used by those parties when the next election comes around.
This means that a very large number of public representatives in a parliament have no input into legislation for the 4 to 5 years they spend in the parliament.
This isn’t a feature of Sortition. There is no government party, and no elections, so public representatives who put forward legislation can accept changes and improvement to legislation without having to worry about how this makes them look or how it impact on their electoral prospects.
8. Political geography
In order for voters to feel like their local areas are getting a fair deal in the distribution of resources, decisions around public spending are often made on the basis of electoral impact rather than actual need. This leads to systems that are disjointed and poorly planned, in which valuable resources are wasted.
In Sortition, there are no elections, so public representatives can consider decisions entirely on what matters, leading to more efficient systems that can be planned with a long term perspective.
9. Politicians Pay
Because elections are essentially a popularity contest, its a lot easier to succeed when you have money. The more football kits you sponsor, the more rounds you buy in the pub, the more donations you give to charity, the more ads you put in the paper etc etc the more popular you are amongst voters. That puts people who have less money, who are generally the people who need most representation, at a disadvantage. To re-balance this situation, elected politicians are paid well, to remove the temptation for them to obtain money from people who would seek to influence the way they act (ie corruption).
In Sortition, there is no competition. Everybody has the same chance of becoming a public representative as everybody else, so money is no advantage. People chosen to participate in the Dail on the basis of Sortition would be paid, but it wouldn’t be necessary to pay politicians as well as they are paid today.
One of the most frequent criticisms levelled at elected politicians is that they are out of touch with ordinary people. This allows people to ignore and break laws more easily, in that they can question the legitimacy of the laws on the basis that the people making them do not understand their impact.
If the Dail were composed of “ordinary” people, there would be no question of laws not being legitimate.
Next: What if duffers and lunatics get picked?